2016年11月14日 星期一

AAA game dev lifestyle is 'unwinnable ' says veteran game designer Amy Hennig __ 3A遊戲的開發生活是"無法獲勝" veteran 遊戲設計師 Amy Hennig 說到


Resource: Here
Amy Hennig knows more about triple-A development than most, having steered the Uncharted ship for so long as the series' creative director and head writer, before leaving for pastures new prior to the release of Uncharted 4.
Amy Hennig 了解相當多3A級遊戲開發,曾長期參與秘境探險系列,擔任創意總監和主編劇,在秘境探險4發售前,她得到一個更好的機會。  
After stepping away from Naughty Dog, Hennig joined up with Visceral Games to serve as creative director on the studio's top secret Star Wars project. But despite having made a name for herself in the realm of triple-A game dev, Hennig isn't exactly smitten with the "unwinnable" lifestyle it imposes on developers.

離開Naughty Dog之後,Hennig加入了Visceral Games,在極機密的星際大戰專案,擔任創意總監。但除了她在3A遊戲開發有名外,Henning沒有真的被"無法勝利"的生活方式給擊倒,而它們逼迫著開發者。
"There are people who never go home and see their families. They have children who are growing up without seeing them," she explained in an interview with the Designer Notes podcastas transcribed by GamesIndustry.biz.

"有些人從沒回家和看他們的家人,他們有小孩,而在成長過程中看不見他們。"她在 Designer Notes podcastas transcribed by GamesIndustry.biz. 的面談解釋。
"There were people who, y'know, collapsed, or had to go and check themselves in somewhere when one of these games were done. Or they got divorced. That's not okay, any of that. None of this is worth that. It's an arms race that is unwinnable and is destroying people."

"這些人,你懂得,崩潰,或是遊戲完成後,必須去某個地方檢查身體。或是與另一半離婚,這些並不好,這些都不值得,這是無法勝利的軍備比賽而且正在摧毀開發者。"
Despite her reservations, Hennig is still happy with how her own career has panned out, although it's not the games themselves she's taking issue with. It's the process behind them.

除了她的質疑,Henning還是很高興她的電玩職涯已經尾聲,雖然她同意這無關遊戲本身,而是這些遊戲背後的過程。
So, how do you sold a problem like triple-A? As it stands, there isn't a quick fix, and according to Hennig there isn't even a clear long-term solution. Sure, studios could ask for more time and resources, but that'd inevitably be offset by the pressure to make their blockbuster game bigger, better, and even more lucrative.

 那麼,你如何解決像3A遊戲的開發流程? 它一直存在,沒有快速解決方法,根據Henning的說法,甚至沒有明確長期的配套。當然,各工作室可以要求更多時間和資源,但製作他們的大作遊戲,想要更龐大更優質,甚至更賺錢,這種壓力必將抵銷一切。
It's pressure that rolls downhill and piles onto those behind the industry's biggest releases, forcing them to go above and beyond to meet rapidly approaching deadlines. 
壓力滾到山谷並在堆積在產業發表背後,強迫他們付出更多,面對不斷接近的截止日期。
"Trying to finish a game like that [Uncharted 3] in two years is insane, especially when you're saying that the two years is everything: pre-production, production," Hennig elaborated, explaining why crunch is still part-and-parcel of triple-A development.  
"試著在兩年內,作出像密境3的遊戲,根本瘋了,尤其是包括:前製,量產,"Henning詳述,解釋為什麼加班仍是三A遊戲開發不可缺少的。
"Time is a huge one, but then everyone is racing with cost versus time. So could we do it with smaller teams longer? Sure, but then we tend to throw people at these things and burn money fast. We've all seen games that took too long and they kind of got lapped. We're definitely at the point where something's got to give."
"時間是很大因素,接著每個人與成本v.s.時間競賽,那我們在比較小的團隊,然後開發久一點。當然,但我們傾向丟人去作那些工作和燒錢快速。我們已經看到遊戲花太多時間,他們有點被困住。而我們必須要在時間點生出東西。"
Hennig's interview has prompted other triple-A developers to share their own experiences. Writing on Reddit, an anonymous Scottish designer, who claims to have had stints at Rockstar and another Edinburgh studio, explained crunch time and over-expectant publishers are "killing the triple-A industry."
Hennig的面談也提到其他3A開發者,分享他們的經驗。寫在Reddit上,an anonymous Scottish designer,他任職於Rockstar 和其他Rfinburgh工作室,說明加班和過度預期(過度樂觀)的發行商正撲殺3A工業。
"I work with a couple of people who have been doing this since the late '80s and they look remarkably older than they are. Going into a smaller studio was the best thing I ever did, we still make triple-A games but it's so much more manageable," they wrote. 

"我和一些人80年代後期,就已經在一起工作,他們明顯看起來比他們年紀還大,去較小的工作室是我做過最好的決定,我們依舊製作3A遊戲但更容易管理,他們寫到。


"The truth is that publishers are more and more demanding, expecting better and better results with less time and less budget and less resources."

"事實是發行商越來越嚴苛,用較少的時間預算和資源,期待更好更棒的成果。"
Another user who purports to have worked in-studio on an unnamed triple-A title spoke about the debilitating effects of crunch, and how it ultimately drove them out of the games industry.

另一個網友聲稱在一個不能曝光的3A遊戲下工作 spoke about the debilitating effects of crunch,並說明這情況最終如何使他們離開遊戲產業。
"In roughly seven or so months in the midst of crunch, while working 12-20 hour shifts, seven days a week, I lost about 70 pounds," they revealed. "On the days when I didn't just crash on the couch in the waiting room, I'd go home, fall asleep, wake up, immediately go back to work."

他們透露"有大約7個月的加班期,每天12-20的工時,一個禮拜七天,我掉了70磅"。那些日子裡,如果我沒有累炸,倒在等候室的沙發上,我就會回家,睡覺,起床,立刻上班。
"I saw the project through to the end and left the industry. Maybe I just wasn't passionate enough about games, but nothing really seemed worth that to me."

"我看到專案的尾聲並離開產業。也許我對遊戲的熱情還不夠,但這樣工作下,沒有甚麼事情對我是值得的"
To hear more from Hennig you can listen to the Designer Notes podcast, which is hosted by Mohawk Games founder Soren Johnson and, sometimes, Finji co-founder Adam Saltsman, right here. You can also see what other Reddit users thought of the interview by clicking here.

要了解更多Hennig,你可以聽Designer Notes podcast,由Mohawk Games創辦人Soren Johnson主持。有時候,共同創辦人Adam Saltsman,right here.,你也可以看Reddit users透過by clicking here.

2016年10月20日 星期四

Jim Brown's level design workshop: The illusion of choice By Katherine Cross __ Jim Brown's 關卡設計營 : 選擇的錯覺(待議假象)


resource

Jim Brown's level design workshop: The illusion of choice By Katherine Cross
Jim Brown's 關卡設計營 : 選擇的錯覺

Jim Brown's level design workshop: The illusion of choice

Tuesday afternoon saw a fascinating GDC talk led byJim Brown of Epic Games about how to create games that provide players with an “illusion of choice.”
星期四下午,我聽了一場引人入勝的GDC演講,主講人是Epic Games的Jim Brown,主題:如何在遊戲中,提供玩家一個"選擇的錯覺"。
This is a paramount concern because of how easily players can be overwhelmed by choices in a game, despite our never ending demands for choice in games. “Choice,” indeed, is a top-shelf buzzword for back-of-the-box blurbs for any number of games. It’s not just for RPGs anymore, either. A whole host of games now tout “choice” as synecdoche for realism.
這是最先要關注的,因為玩家很容易在遊戲中被許多選擇弄混淆,儘管在遊戲裡,我們永無止盡要求作選擇。選擇。"選擇",的確,在任何遊戲背面的宣傳裡,它是一個頂尖的流行詞。現在不只在RPG裡,所有主機遊戲現在為了更加真實,都提倡"選擇"如同提喻(英文會用wheel代替car,中文借喻會用銀盤代替月亮)。
Bringing a behavioral science perspective to his lecture, Brown made an argument for making choice illusory while preserving player autonomy. He drew a key distinction between player agency, which he defined as our capacity to choose, and player autonomy which he defined as our capacity to make informed decisions. In the case of the latter, he argued that autonomy was more about providing executive endorsement of the paths we had committed to.

他的課程帶入行為科學的角度,在保持玩家的自主上,Brown對製造選擇假象提出一個辯論,他加以區別玩家機制(指:玩家的能夠有意識的和遊戲世界互動)與玩家自主的不同。前者,他認為以我們能力做選擇,後者,以我們的能力做出明智的決定,他認為自主權比較像是關於更多提供我們允許通行的背書。
The sunk cost fallacy, Brown argued, was easily exploited to compel players to follow paths laid out by developers. If players could be moved to invest a bit in a quest chain or the consequences of a given decision, they would continue down that path. “There is a huge sunk cost to creating a character and getting them to max level,” he said of MMOs.

沉默成本的誤解,Brown解釋,很容易被開發者利用,迫使玩家跟著路徑規劃行走。如果玩家可以迫使投注多一點任務支線或選擇的結果,他們會繼續在遊玩路途上。他認為線上遊戲”有巨大的沈默成本是在創造角色並使他們升到最高等級”。
But if this sounds manipulative, the core of his argument seemed to be something many players could appreciate. He put up a famous graphic comparing a seemingly complex Doom level to a purportedly more linear level from a generic 2010 game where a corridor was punctuated by cutscenes.

不過這聽起來像是操縱人心,他討論的核心似乎也是許多玩家會重視的,他放上一張著名的圖,比較毀滅戰士1的複雜關卡與來自2010年一款普通遊戲的線型關卡,走道部分是會演出過場動畫。
The Doom level from the 90s, despite its apparent complexity on the blueprint map he showed, was entirely linear. But its blind alleys, keycard collection, and shortcuts gave the player autonomy: the ability to feel as if they are endorsing a path they had committed to voluntarily, even if they were being funneled in a direction that had long ago been decided up on by the level designer.

來自90年代的毀滅戰士1關卡,儘管它的藍圖看來複雜,不過都還是線性。但是它的死胡同,晶片卡收集和捷徑都給予玩家自主 : 這項能力感覺像是他們選擇喜歡的路線,自願通行,就算他們已經迷失方向一陣子。但這一切是關卡設計師早就設計好的路線。
After all, popular multiplayer maps leave very little choice to the player and yet players love them, despite having only two to three possible paths to pursue across the length of the map, he argued.

他說,畢竟,受歡迎的多人連線地圖,就很少給玩家選擇,但玩家就是愛,除了只有2-3條可能的路線是為了追求地圖長度。
He pushed back against popular advertising techniques that influence players and instead preserved their autonomy and enabled them to make meaning of the choices they were making. Crucial to this perspective is the idea that even if--as with the Thieves’ Guild quests in Oblivion--everyone’s technical path through the quest is the same, they are given the emotional tools to layer their own interpretations and meanings atop that experience. Brown is not advocating the callous manipulation of players, then, but a way to simulate the infinite choice of the real world without overwhelming the player.

他反對受歡迎的廣告技術,它影響玩家,反而保護他們的自主權,也讓他們有意識的選擇。這關鍵點在,這個想法即使,在上古卷軸4:盜賊工會--每一個人的技能線,透過任務都是一樣的,給玩家情緒工具去堆疊他們自我的詮釋和經驗,Brown不主張生硬的操控玩家,而是用一種模擬真實世界的無限選擇,無需衝擊到玩家。

One bit of the talk I found particularly interesting was Brown’s argument that tropes in games were the result of familiarity being psychologically pleasing to us. This, he argued, induced developers to resort to the timeworn cliches of, say, RPG levels set in city sewers, or parts of FPS levels taking place in air-conditioning ducts. 

有一段話,我特別覺得有趣,Brown的觀點認為,在遊戲裡的情節是熟悉心理如何娛樂我們的結果。這觀點,導致開發者會採取老梗的方式,他說,RPG關卡設在城市下水道,或大多FPS的關卡發生在空調管道中。
The converse of this was that players subconsciously both expect and like such things.

相反的是,玩家潛意識地期待和喜歡這些關卡。
According to Brown, this familiarity has another side-effect as well: it compels players to make choices that comport with the expectations set by the trope. He pointed to Bioshock’s infamous choice between killing or saving The Little Sisters and gestured at statistics that showed the overwhelming majority of players saved them on their first playthrough. This, he argued, was because saving children was our comfortable and familiar way of dealing with the presence of little kids in such an otherwise terrifying environment. Intentionally or not, Bioshock’s developers created a highly winnowed choice that players could feel autonomously emotionally invested in.

根據Brown的論述,這種熟悉感也有一個副作用 : 它迫使玩家從情節所期望的表現,做出選擇。他指出生化奇兵的惡名選擇,殺掉或拯救小妹妹,然後看了一下統計數字,顯示絕大多數玩家會存下他們第一次玩到這的紀錄。這件事,他認為,因為拯救孩子是能接受的而且在這可怕的環境中,已熟悉與孩子相處的方式。不管有心或無意,生化奇兵的開發者創造出高度精選的選擇,玩家會感到自主情感的投入。
Familiarity, then, can be seen as a shortcut to investment on the part of the player.

熟悉感,再來,可以被視為一項投資在玩家上的捷徑。
While I can’t say that I’m entirely sold on all of these ideas, they provide stark insight into how modern developers are thinking about choice, and why what’s going on beneath the hood of any given game is likely more complex--from both a technological and psychological standpoint--than many players might be giving their developers credit for.

我不能說我已完全說完所有想法,它們提供無可避免的選擇,給現在開發者如何思考選擇,以及為什麼在特定遊戲部落底下越來越複雜--來自技術和心理的角度--超越許多玩家給予開發者的好評。


2016年9月26日 星期一

2016年9月18日 星期日

50 common game camera mistakes -- and how to fix them by John Nesky : 50個常見遊戲攝影機的錯誤 -- 並如何改善by John Nesky _part 3

source from: Video: 50 common game camera mistakes -- and how to fix them





  • #地雷38 : Responding to accidental controller input.回應突發性的控制輸入


    • Journey supports tilting the entire controller to control the camera. But unlike sticks, the tilt has no built-in neutral position.風之旅人提供升降整個攝影機的控制,但並非在中間位置作升降。
    • To minimize accidental input, constantly recalibrate the neutral position to adapt to the player's posture.為縮小突發性的輸入,立即的重新校正中間位置,去因應玩家的位置。
    • It worked better in Flower because tilting is the *only* thing you do, so you focus on it.這最好在關鍵階段發生,因為升降是唯一你能做的,所以你必須聚焦在這上面。


    • #地雷39 : Using Linear sensitivity.使用線型靈敏值

    • Analog sticks don't have much range.(如果使用線型)模擬搖桿就沒有太多應用空間。
    • To provide more perceived range, use an "S" curve for the sensitivity.為提供更精確的範圍,使用S曲線當作靈敏值。
    • Intermediate positions should be significantly less sensitive than extreme positions, allowing players to make small adjustments.中等位置應該要特別少的靈敏值,並少於急劇位置的靈敏反應。讓玩家可以做較細微的調整。


    • #地雷40 : Letting the camera pivot drift too far.攝影機的軸心飄移太遠

    • Jerky avatar motions can be smoothed out by letting the avatar drift slightly from the center of the screen.可以讓角色在螢幕中心,攝影機緩慢移動(延遲移動),解決忽快忽慢的角色運動。
    • But it's easy to let a fast player escape the screen entirely.不過這會讓速度快的角色,整體跑出畫面。
    • Limit how far the camera can draft.限制攝影機可以漂移的距離。

    • #地雷41 : Using a small field-of-view.使用固定小範圍的視野。
    • The more the camera is zoomed in, the faster everything appears to move.大多的攝影機都是拉近,因此物件移動會看起來很快。
    • Camera zoom should be turned to fit the environment size and avatar speed.攝影機縮放需要符合場景尺寸和角色速度。
    •  First-person games often make players feel sick.第一人稱遊戲通常會讓玩家噁心。
    • Expanding the field-of-view reduces simulation sickness.擴大視野可以減少動暈。
    • #地雷42 : Rapidly shifting field-of-view.頻繁切換視野
    • Racing games often change FOV when boosting.賽車遊戲通常在加速時改變視野
    • First-person games change FOV when aiming.第一人稱遊戲通常在瞄準時改變視野
    • FOV shifts feel like a forward-backward motion, and can be a trigger for simulation sickness. FOV的改變,感覺會像是視覺前進後退的移動,這都是導致動暈噁心的誘因。
    • #地雷43 : Shaking the camera.震動攝影機
    • "Screen shake" is a popular trick to emphasize impacts.螢幕振動是一種很普遍的技巧,可以增加效果。
    • But it's pretty clearly a trigger for simulation sickness.但也容易造成動暈噁心。
    • Just provide a feature in the options menu to tone it down.在選單中,也提供一個選項能夠關掉振動。
    • #地雷44 : Bouncing the camera with the avatar's walk cycle.攝影機跟隨玩家走路(跑步)循環的起伏。
    • The up-and-down camera motion , when not also accompanied with an up-and-down couch motion, is nauseating.攝影機上下位移,沒有配合適當的緩衝動作,也會造成噁心。(這常見在攝影機架在過肩位置的遊戲,這讓遊戲更逼真)
    • Also needs a menu option! 所以也需要選單項目可以開關它。

    • #地雷45 : Translating or rotating up and down when the avatar jumps.玩家跳躍,會轉變或旋轉上下方向。

    • What comes up must come down. 攝影機有升必有降(普遍存在於第三人稱遊戲及橫向卷軸上)
    • The camera can ignore 攝影機可以忽視,不必跟隨跳躍。
    • #地雷46 : Rapidly transitioning to a new camera position.頻繁轉換新的攝影機位置。

    • Yanking the camera isn't much better for sense of direction than a cut, and still trigger simulation sickness.對於方向感而言,突然移動攝影機,不會比切鏡的鏡頭更好,並且也會造成動暈噁心。(遊戲開發者可能遵循不要切鏡頭這個規則太過頭了!)
    • If it's a moment when control is taken away from the player, a  cut would be perfect.假使攝影機有一會兒的時間無法被玩家控制,這顆鏡頭就完美了。


    • #地雷47 : Maintaining pitch speed until hitting the pitch limit.保持間距速度,直到到達間距的極限
    • Pitch has upper and lower bounds.間距有上限與下限
    • Stopping abruptly at the limit triggers simulation sickness.在限制下突然停止,會引發噁心動暈。
    • Decelerate as the camera approaches the limit for a smooth stop.攝影機接近限制速度時,要用降速並平順的停止攝影機。


    • #地雷48 : Developing for the Oculus Rift. 研發VR (大家大笑)

    • There's a lot of exciting development going on here.這個領域有很多令人興奮的發展
    • But I'm very skeptical that the simulation sickness problem will ever go away completely.但我非常懷疑,動暈問題還是會存在著。
    • To reach more players, don't make the Oculus Rift mandatory for your game.為吸引更多玩家,別讓遊戲強制使用VR裝置。


    • #地雷49 : Testing with a narrow demographic. 用少數人做檢測
    • People who already play the type of game you're making won't help you grow your audience.準備想玩你遊戲的玩家,可能無法幫你增加玩家數。
    • Children and beginners will point out many design flaws.孩童和新手可以幫你指出許多設計缺陷。
    • Ask testers if the game makes them feel sick.詢問測試者遊戲是否會讓他們動暈。


    • #地雷50 : Writing a general "constraint solver". 寫一個通用的"限制處理軟體"
    • All of these mistakes are part of the iteration process.這些所有缺失都是迭代過程的一部分
    • It's a lot easier to iterate on rules that interact in predictable ways.使用可預測且互動的規則,更容易迭代。
    • Relying on an optimizing artificial intelligence to figure it out can be unpredictable.依靠最佳化的AI去理出頭緒,可能會變得無法預測。
    • It's important to deeply understand the relationships between the constraints.深度了解限制之間的關係,是很重要的。

    • : The Devil is in the Details. 惡魔藏在細節裡!
    • unfortunately, solutions that work for one game wouldn't work for all. 不幸的,每個遊戲並不會全都用上這些解決方式。
    • This list can serve as criteria to help you evaluate how well your solutions work.這張清單,可以當作標準,幫助你優化你的作品。
    • But they are not a replacement for testing.但這不代表可以取代測試,還是要找人做測試!
    • Good Luck .祝 好運!

    2016年8月21日 星期日

    50 common game camera mistakes -- and how to fix them by John Nesky : 50個常見遊戲攝影機的錯誤 -- 並如何改善by John Nesky _part 2


    source from: Video: 50 common game camera mistakes -- and how to fix them
    • #地雷17 : Not cutting when the avatar passes through opaque areas. 不要中斷玩家穿越不透明區域
    • Avatar collision USUALLY protects line-of-sight from the front. 玩家碰撞通常會從前面保護視覺動線。
    • But opaque thing aren't always solid.但不透明物體不一定是固態
    • Only one option left: cut 只有一個選擇 : 切鏡


    • #地雷18 : Letting cuts remap directional controls. 讓切鏡重新布局方向的控制


    • Pressing the directional stick upward means go forward.按住方向桿往前,意思就是往前走
    • But the camera decides which direction is forward.不過攝影機才是決定那個方向前進。
    • Players adapt when forward rotates smoothly, but it's impossible to teleport your thumb when a camera cuts.前進平順旋轉,玩家會適應,不過攝影機切鏡,玩家不可能瞬間移動自己的拇指(他們不會迅速做出反應)
    • Give the player a moment to get used to the new angle before requiring new input.在新的遊戲內容來臨前,讓玩家有時間去習慣新的角度。(讓他們先在一個不會受到攻擊的地方適應)

    • #地雷19 : Breaking the player's sense of direction. 破壞玩家方向感。
    • Cuts are common in cinema, but players need to be able to navigate.在電影中,切鏡是很普遍,但需要指引玩家。
    • Players navigate with a combination of landmarks and dead reckoning. Cuts break the latter.玩家用地標和航位推測組合推測方向,但切鏡會破壞這一切。
    • Cut sparingly.有節制的切鏡。
    • If the camera must cut, avoid changing the angle more than 90 degrees, and try to keep landmarks in view.攝影機一定要被切鏡,避免改變角度超過90度,並且保持地標在鏡頭內。

    • #地雷20: Violating the 180 degree rule. 違反180度原則

    •  well-know in cinema, the 180 degree rule is less important to game because it only matter during cuts.這在電影裡眾所皆知,但對遊戲而言,180度規則只是幾個cut。
    • But it still applies to cutscenes!但它還是會是用在過場動畫!!
    • Align the game camera with the end of a cutscene and transition smoothly to the game camera to preserve sense of direction.對齊過場動畫結束的遊戲攝影機,並順暢地切換成遊戲攝影機,這之間要保持場景方向。

    • #地雷21:Focusing only on the avatar.只對焦玩家角色

    • The avatar is not an island! 玩家角色不是島嶼!
    • Player need to see where they're going, and it's the camera's job to show them.玩家需要看到他們該去的地方,這也是攝影機的任務,指引玩家。

    • #地雷22:Relying on players to control the camera all the time.隨時讓玩家操控攝影機
    • For many players, controlling an avatar and a camera at the same time is like patting their head and rubbing their belly.對許多玩家,同時控制角色和攝影機,就像是拍拍他們的頭,和對他們肚子搔癢(不能提升遊玩體驗,他舉的例子就是玩家把攝影機移動,像是喝醉的人,攝影機應該給玩家看最好的角度)
    • Even players who are good  at it use jerky motion.即便玩家擅長穩定手震鏡頭
    • There are many  tricks to point the camera in the right direction automatically.有很多技巧可以自動指引攝影機到對的方向。

    • #地雷23:Leaving camera yaw alone while player is running. 玩家在奔跑時,只留攝影機Y軸旋轉

    •  Player usually want to look in the same direction that they're running in.玩家在奔跑中,通常想看同一個方向。
    • The simplest way to guide players is to shoe them where they're already going. The camera should drift behind moving players.最簡易指引玩家的方法,就是朝他們行進的方向拍攝。
    • It's like giving the directional stick two functions, but don't keep turning when the avatar runs into a wall. 有點像給方向桿兩個功能,但遇到牆,要讓攝影機換鏡位,別讓玩家認為可以繼續往前走。

    • #地雷24:Making it hard to judge distances.很難判斷攝影機距離
    • The game may be 3D, but the screen is 2D.遊戲是3D的,但螢幕是2D
    • Depth perception is weak.空間深度會感受較薄弱
    • Distances are easiest to judge when they align with the plane of the screen.玩家與螢幕平面如果是對齊的,距離容易判斷。
    • Side views are good for vertical navigation. 側視圖容易判斷垂直導航移動距離
    • Top views are good for horizontal navigation. 上視圖容易判斷水平導航移動距離

    • #地雷25:Looking straight ahead as the avatar approaches a cliff.攝影機筆直前進,就像玩家接近懸崖。
    •  Use raycasts to determine the elevation ahead and detect drops.使用raycasts決定勢能頭和偵測落下。
    • Tilt to an overhead view to show how far the avatar is from the edge, and to allow the player to see below. 傾斜俯瞰視角,可以呈現玩家距離邊界有多遠,允許玩家看到邊界下方。
    • Lifting the camera over the avatar keeps it from hitting the ground in case the avatar suddenly drops down.攝影機升過玩家角色,讓它不要碰撞到地面,像是玩家突然掉落某個地方,攝影機就該高於角色。(可以幫助玩家看到底部)

    • #地雷26:Keeping the camera level when the avatar is running on a slope.角色在坡度上跑,要保持攝影機高度


    •  A straight-ahead view feels like an overhead view when climbing a slope. Align the camera with the slope.
      爬坡時,直線視線感覺會像俯瞰視角,攝影機是沿著坡度移動
    • The slope immediately under the avatar's feet may be bumpy. Use raycasts to determine average to determine average slope.玩家在爬坡,有可能會崎嶇,使用raycasts 決定平均坡度。
    • It's easy for raycasts to mistake a short wall for an upward hill. Distinguish with surface normals.
      Raycasts 很容易對山丘上的短邊牆產生錯誤,使用表面法向區分出來。

    • #地雷27: Misusing the "Rule of thirds".誤用「三分構圖法」
    • Framing thing off-center can be pleasant.景框的物體沒有在中心是可以被接受。
    • But don't pivot in-place!但是不要把軸心放在非中心位置。
    • Instead,Slide sideways to frame the avatar.而是鏡頭的位置往側邊滑動,去框住玩家。
    • But players use the center of the screen to aim the directional stick.但玩家是使用螢幕中心去對準手把的方向桿(換句話說,玩家認為螢幕中心就是手把中心)
    • Shadow of the Colossus only works because it has a "gas pedal".這種角色位置非在畫面中心,只有汪達與巨像可以這麼作,因為它只有一個"油門踏板"(它只需要轉動攝影機,並角色是自動移動)。

    • #地雷28: Using the same Logic for ground and air motion.對地面和空中,都使用相同邏輯
    • Players need to make different judgements depending on their form of transport. The camera should adapt. 玩家依據他們的形式改變,要做出不一樣的判斷,攝影機也應該要調整。
    • When jumping or flying, players want to see where they'll land. Look downward.當跳躍或飛行,玩家玩家會想看他們要在何處降落。會往下看。
    • Short hops might not require any change. Modulate rule changes by the avatar's height above ground.短距離跳躍可能不會差太多,藉由玩家離地面的高度,調整規則。

    • 地雷#29 : Relying entirely on procedural camera behaviors.完全依靠程序化攝影機的運動
    • Raycasts can only convey boundaries. They don't indicate value.只能傳遞邊界範圍,它們不能偵測體積。
    • As designers we have a better idea of what's important.
      我們身為設計師,「什麼是最重要」才是更佳點子(重要的東西才要讓攝影機看到)
    • For special cases, use scripted "hints" to point yaw or pitch at a target.特別的例子(小場景),撰寫"Hints"(程式用語)去使用yaw or pitch指出目標物。


    • 地雷#30 : Letting players make themselves lost and confused.讓玩家自己迷路和混亂
    • Detect whether the player has started backtracking a significant distance or veering away from targets.偵測不論玩家是否已經開始回到明顯的距離或遠離目標。(普遍做法:在雷達上放方向錯誤訊息,但作者覺得這太明顯)
    • Gently rotate the camera to guide the player back.巧妙地旋轉攝影機指引玩家回到目標路上(作者推薦)
    • Explicitly telling the player where to go robs them of the sense of discovery.清楚明白告訴玩家

    • 地雷#31 : Rotating to look at nearby targets. 旋轉攝影機去看靠近的目標
    • Nearby targets change directions frequently.經常改變靠近的目標的方向
    • Trying to keep up results in flailing around.試著揮動攝影機,保持拍攝目標在鏡頭內。
    • Move back or sideways to include targets in the view.攝影機往後移動或側邊拖拉,保持拍攝目標在鏡頭內。

    • 地雷#32 : Translating to look at distant targets. 轉換觀看遠處的目標
    • Distant targets, on the other hand, will stay roughly the same direction from the avatar.遠處的目標,另一方面,就是與玩家站在同樣差不多的方向
    • The further away they are, the further the camera would have to move to account for them.藉由較遠的目標,遠處攝影機可以依據他們做移動。
    • The only way to look at the sun is to rotate the camera.只有一個方式看太陽,轉動攝影機。

    • 地雷#33: Letting the avatar's own body occlude targets ahead. 讓玩家的身體擋住目標前進。
    • If the avatar and the target are both aligned with the horizontal center of the screen, they need to be vertically offset to be able to see both.如果玩家和目標同在一個水平線上,他們需要垂直偏移,使兩者都可以看見。
    • A slight bird's eye view usually works fine.些微的鳥瞰通常會有不錯的效果。
    • Alternatively, side sideways for a horizontal offset.另一個方式,水平位移。

    • 地雷#34 : Giving the player control over the camera and then taking it away.給予玩家完整控制攝影機,卻又把控制權拿回來。
    • Hints and rails can provide "default" camera angles, but let the player to override them.Hints 和 rails(程式用語)可以提供"預設"攝影機角度,但讓玩家可以覆蓋它們。
    • If you have to take away the player's control, make sure that the camera is already showing what the player needs to see.如果你不讓玩家操作,要確定攝影機已經顯示玩家需要看到的東西。

    • 地雷#35 : Immediately applying a hint after the player finished turning the camera to look at something. 玩家完成攝影機轉向看某件事,立刻使用Hint
    • If the player intentionally turned to look at something, they probably want to examine it before moving on.玩家有意轉向看某物,他們可能想研究它。
    • If there's nothing important, let the camera rest for a moment or until the avatar moves.如果沒有必要,讓攝影機休息片刻(延遲Delay)或等玩家移動再動作。

    • 地雷#36 : Not letting exports explore.不讓探險者探索
    • Curious and experienced players may want to break the rules and explore a bit more.好奇心和有經驗的玩家,也許不想要遵守規則,只想深入探索。
    • Beginners need quidance, but letting exports control the camera lets them choose what matters to them.
    • 初學者需要指導,不過要讓玩家控制攝影機,讓他們選擇他們覺得重要的。

    • 地雷#37 : Not providing inverted controls. 不提供反向操作 
    • many players are used to inverted camera controls on one or both axes, and it's hard for them to relearn.許多玩家習慣反向操作攝影機的某一軸到兩軸。(第一人稱遊戲會有)
    • Not having the option simply limits your audience.並不是給個選項,就單純限制你的玩家。


    2016年8月15日 星期一

    My MRT sketch book vol 17


    HAHA ~~ Blue Monday,but i feel awesome, it's will be a efficient day . All people are in blue and no one could bother me !!