2016年9月26日 星期一

2016年9月18日 星期日

50 common game camera mistakes -- and how to fix them by John Nesky : 50個常見遊戲攝影機的錯誤 -- 並如何改善by John Nesky _part 3

source from: Video: 50 common game camera mistakes -- and how to fix them





  • #地雷38 : Responding to accidental controller input.回應突發性的控制輸入


    • Journey supports tilting the entire controller to control the camera. But unlike sticks, the tilt has no built-in neutral position.風之旅人提供升降整個攝影機的控制,但並非在中間位置作升降。
    • To minimize accidental input, constantly recalibrate the neutral position to adapt to the player's posture.為縮小突發性的輸入,立即的重新校正中間位置,去因應玩家的位置。
    • It worked better in Flower because tilting is the *only* thing you do, so you focus on it.這最好在關鍵階段發生,因為升降是唯一你能做的,所以你必須聚焦在這上面。


    • #地雷39 : Using Linear sensitivity.使用線型靈敏值

    • Analog sticks don't have much range.(如果使用線型)模擬搖桿就沒有太多應用空間。
    • To provide more perceived range, use an "S" curve for the sensitivity.為提供更精確的範圍,使用S曲線當作靈敏值。
    • Intermediate positions should be significantly less sensitive than extreme positions, allowing players to make small adjustments.中等位置應該要特別少的靈敏值,並少於急劇位置的靈敏反應。讓玩家可以做較細微的調整。


    • #地雷40 : Letting the camera pivot drift too far.攝影機的軸心飄移太遠

    • Jerky avatar motions can be smoothed out by letting the avatar drift slightly from the center of the screen.可以讓角色在螢幕中心,攝影機緩慢移動(延遲移動),解決忽快忽慢的角色運動。
    • But it's easy to let a fast player escape the screen entirely.不過這會讓速度快的角色,整體跑出畫面。
    • Limit how far the camera can draft.限制攝影機可以漂移的距離。

    • #地雷41 : Using a small field-of-view.使用固定小範圍的視野。
    • The more the camera is zoomed in, the faster everything appears to move.大多的攝影機都是拉近,因此物件移動會看起來很快。
    • Camera zoom should be turned to fit the environment size and avatar speed.攝影機縮放需要符合場景尺寸和角色速度。
    •  First-person games often make players feel sick.第一人稱遊戲通常會讓玩家噁心。
    • Expanding the field-of-view reduces simulation sickness.擴大視野可以減少動暈。
    • #地雷42 : Rapidly shifting field-of-view.頻繁切換視野
    • Racing games often change FOV when boosting.賽車遊戲通常在加速時改變視野
    • First-person games change FOV when aiming.第一人稱遊戲通常在瞄準時改變視野
    • FOV shifts feel like a forward-backward motion, and can be a trigger for simulation sickness. FOV的改變,感覺會像是視覺前進後退的移動,這都是導致動暈噁心的誘因。
    • #地雷43 : Shaking the camera.震動攝影機
    • "Screen shake" is a popular trick to emphasize impacts.螢幕振動是一種很普遍的技巧,可以增加效果。
    • But it's pretty clearly a trigger for simulation sickness.但也容易造成動暈噁心。
    • Just provide a feature in the options menu to tone it down.在選單中,也提供一個選項能夠關掉振動。
    • #地雷44 : Bouncing the camera with the avatar's walk cycle.攝影機跟隨玩家走路(跑步)循環的起伏。
    • The up-and-down camera motion , when not also accompanied with an up-and-down couch motion, is nauseating.攝影機上下位移,沒有配合適當的緩衝動作,也會造成噁心。(這常見在攝影機架在過肩位置的遊戲,這讓遊戲更逼真)
    • Also needs a menu option! 所以也需要選單項目可以開關它。

    • #地雷45 : Translating or rotating up and down when the avatar jumps.玩家跳躍,會轉變或旋轉上下方向。

    • What comes up must come down. 攝影機有升必有降(普遍存在於第三人稱遊戲及橫向卷軸上)
    • The camera can ignore 攝影機可以忽視,不必跟隨跳躍。
    • #地雷46 : Rapidly transitioning to a new camera position.頻繁轉換新的攝影機位置。

    • Yanking the camera isn't much better for sense of direction than a cut, and still trigger simulation sickness.對於方向感而言,突然移動攝影機,不會比切鏡的鏡頭更好,並且也會造成動暈噁心。(遊戲開發者可能遵循不要切鏡頭這個規則太過頭了!)
    • If it's a moment when control is taken away from the player, a  cut would be perfect.假使攝影機有一會兒的時間無法被玩家控制,這顆鏡頭就完美了。


    • #地雷47 : Maintaining pitch speed until hitting the pitch limit.保持間距速度,直到到達間距的極限
    • Pitch has upper and lower bounds.間距有上限與下限
    • Stopping abruptly at the limit triggers simulation sickness.在限制下突然停止,會引發噁心動暈。
    • Decelerate as the camera approaches the limit for a smooth stop.攝影機接近限制速度時,要用降速並平順的停止攝影機。


    • #地雷48 : Developing for the Oculus Rift. 研發VR (大家大笑)

    • There's a lot of exciting development going on here.這個領域有很多令人興奮的發展
    • But I'm very skeptical that the simulation sickness problem will ever go away completely.但我非常懷疑,動暈問題還是會存在著。
    • To reach more players, don't make the Oculus Rift mandatory for your game.為吸引更多玩家,別讓遊戲強制使用VR裝置。


    • #地雷49 : Testing with a narrow demographic. 用少數人做檢測
    • People who already play the type of game you're making won't help you grow your audience.準備想玩你遊戲的玩家,可能無法幫你增加玩家數。
    • Children and beginners will point out many design flaws.孩童和新手可以幫你指出許多設計缺陷。
    • Ask testers if the game makes them feel sick.詢問測試者遊戲是否會讓他們動暈。


    • #地雷50 : Writing a general "constraint solver". 寫一個通用的"限制處理軟體"
    • All of these mistakes are part of the iteration process.這些所有缺失都是迭代過程的一部分
    • It's a lot easier to iterate on rules that interact in predictable ways.使用可預測且互動的規則,更容易迭代。
    • Relying on an optimizing artificial intelligence to figure it out can be unpredictable.依靠最佳化的AI去理出頭緒,可能會變得無法預測。
    • It's important to deeply understand the relationships between the constraints.深度了解限制之間的關係,是很重要的。

    • : The Devil is in the Details. 惡魔藏在細節裡!
    • unfortunately, solutions that work for one game wouldn't work for all. 不幸的,每個遊戲並不會全都用上這些解決方式。
    • This list can serve as criteria to help you evaluate how well your solutions work.這張清單,可以當作標準,幫助你優化你的作品。
    • But they are not a replacement for testing.但這不代表可以取代測試,還是要找人做測試!
    • Good Luck .祝 好運!

    2016年8月21日 星期日

    50 common game camera mistakes -- and how to fix them by John Nesky : 50個常見遊戲攝影機的錯誤 -- 並如何改善by John Nesky _part 2


    source from: Video: 50 common game camera mistakes -- and how to fix them
    • #地雷17 : Not cutting when the avatar passes through opaque areas. 不要中斷玩家穿越不透明區域
    • Avatar collision USUALLY protects line-of-sight from the front. 玩家碰撞通常會從前面保護視覺動線。
    • But opaque thing aren't always solid.但不透明物體不一定是固態
    • Only one option left: cut 只有一個選擇 : 切鏡


    • #地雷18 : Letting cuts remap directional controls. 讓切鏡重新布局方向的控制


    • Pressing the directional stick upward means go forward.按住方向桿往前,意思就是往前走
    • But the camera decides which direction is forward.不過攝影機才是決定那個方向前進。
    • Players adapt when forward rotates smoothly, but it's impossible to teleport your thumb when a camera cuts.前進平順旋轉,玩家會適應,不過攝影機切鏡,玩家不可能瞬間移動自己的拇指(他們不會迅速做出反應)
    • Give the player a moment to get used to the new angle before requiring new input.在新的遊戲內容來臨前,讓玩家有時間去習慣新的角度。(讓他們先在一個不會受到攻擊的地方適應)

    • #地雷19 : Breaking the player's sense of direction. 破壞玩家方向感。
    • Cuts are common in cinema, but players need to be able to navigate.在電影中,切鏡是很普遍,但需要指引玩家。
    • Players navigate with a combination of landmarks and dead reckoning. Cuts break the latter.玩家用地標和航位推測組合推測方向,但切鏡會破壞這一切。
    • Cut sparingly.有節制的切鏡。
    • If the camera must cut, avoid changing the angle more than 90 degrees, and try to keep landmarks in view.攝影機一定要被切鏡,避免改變角度超過90度,並且保持地標在鏡頭內。

    • #地雷20: Violating the 180 degree rule. 違反180度原則

    •  well-know in cinema, the 180 degree rule is less important to game because it only matter during cuts.這在電影裡眾所皆知,但對遊戲而言,180度規則只是幾個cut。
    • But it still applies to cutscenes!但它還是會是用在過場動畫!!
    • Align the game camera with the end of a cutscene and transition smoothly to the game camera to preserve sense of direction.對齊過場動畫結束的遊戲攝影機,並順暢地切換成遊戲攝影機,這之間要保持場景方向。

    • #地雷21:Focusing only on the avatar.只對焦玩家角色

    • The avatar is not an island! 玩家角色不是島嶼!
    • Player need to see where they're going, and it's the camera's job to show them.玩家需要看到他們該去的地方,這也是攝影機的任務,指引玩家。

    • #地雷22:Relying on players to control the camera all the time.隨時讓玩家操控攝影機
    • For many players, controlling an avatar and a camera at the same time is like patting their head and rubbing their belly.對許多玩家,同時控制角色和攝影機,就像是拍拍他們的頭,和對他們肚子搔癢(不能提升遊玩體驗,他舉的例子就是玩家把攝影機移動,像是喝醉的人,攝影機應該給玩家看最好的角度)
    • Even players who are good  at it use jerky motion.即便玩家擅長穩定手震鏡頭
    • There are many  tricks to point the camera in the right direction automatically.有很多技巧可以自動指引攝影機到對的方向。

    • #地雷23:Leaving camera yaw alone while player is running. 玩家在奔跑時,只留攝影機Y軸旋轉

    •  Player usually want to look in the same direction that they're running in.玩家在奔跑中,通常想看同一個方向。
    • The simplest way to guide players is to shoe them where they're already going. The camera should drift behind moving players.最簡易指引玩家的方法,就是朝他們行進的方向拍攝。
    • It's like giving the directional stick two functions, but don't keep turning when the avatar runs into a wall. 有點像給方向桿兩個功能,但遇到牆,要讓攝影機換鏡位,別讓玩家認為可以繼續往前走。

    • #地雷24:Making it hard to judge distances.很難判斷攝影機距離
    • The game may be 3D, but the screen is 2D.遊戲是3D的,但螢幕是2D
    • Depth perception is weak.空間深度會感受較薄弱
    • Distances are easiest to judge when they align with the plane of the screen.玩家與螢幕平面如果是對齊的,距離容易判斷。
    • Side views are good for vertical navigation. 側視圖容易判斷垂直導航移動距離
    • Top views are good for horizontal navigation. 上視圖容易判斷水平導航移動距離

    • #地雷25:Looking straight ahead as the avatar approaches a cliff.攝影機筆直前進,就像玩家接近懸崖。
    •  Use raycasts to determine the elevation ahead and detect drops.使用raycasts決定勢能頭和偵測落下。
    • Tilt to an overhead view to show how far the avatar is from the edge, and to allow the player to see below. 傾斜俯瞰視角,可以呈現玩家距離邊界有多遠,允許玩家看到邊界下方。
    • Lifting the camera over the avatar keeps it from hitting the ground in case the avatar suddenly drops down.攝影機升過玩家角色,讓它不要碰撞到地面,像是玩家突然掉落某個地方,攝影機就該高於角色。(可以幫助玩家看到底部)

    • #地雷26:Keeping the camera level when the avatar is running on a slope.角色在坡度上跑,要保持攝影機高度


    •  A straight-ahead view feels like an overhead view when climbing a slope. Align the camera with the slope.
      爬坡時,直線視線感覺會像俯瞰視角,攝影機是沿著坡度移動
    • The slope immediately under the avatar's feet may be bumpy. Use raycasts to determine average to determine average slope.玩家在爬坡,有可能會崎嶇,使用raycasts 決定平均坡度。
    • It's easy for raycasts to mistake a short wall for an upward hill. Distinguish with surface normals.
      Raycasts 很容易對山丘上的短邊牆產生錯誤,使用表面法向區分出來。

    • #地雷27: Misusing the "Rule of thirds".誤用「三分構圖法」
    • Framing thing off-center can be pleasant.景框的物體沒有在中心是可以被接受。
    • But don't pivot in-place!但是不要把軸心放在非中心位置。
    • Instead,Slide sideways to frame the avatar.而是鏡頭的位置往側邊滑動,去框住玩家。
    • But players use the center of the screen to aim the directional stick.但玩家是使用螢幕中心去對準手把的方向桿(換句話說,玩家認為螢幕中心就是手把中心)
    • Shadow of the Colossus only works because it has a "gas pedal".這種角色位置非在畫面中心,只有汪達與巨像可以這麼作,因為它只有一個"油門踏板"(它只需要轉動攝影機,並角色是自動移動)。

    • #地雷28: Using the same Logic for ground and air motion.對地面和空中,都使用相同邏輯
    • Players need to make different judgements depending on their form of transport. The camera should adapt. 玩家依據他們的形式改變,要做出不一樣的判斷,攝影機也應該要調整。
    • When jumping or flying, players want to see where they'll land. Look downward.當跳躍或飛行,玩家玩家會想看他們要在何處降落。會往下看。
    • Short hops might not require any change. Modulate rule changes by the avatar's height above ground.短距離跳躍可能不會差太多,藉由玩家離地面的高度,調整規則。

    • 地雷#29 : Relying entirely on procedural camera behaviors.完全依靠程序化攝影機的運動
    • Raycasts can only convey boundaries. They don't indicate value.只能傳遞邊界範圍,它們不能偵測體積。
    • As designers we have a better idea of what's important.
      我們身為設計師,「什麼是最重要」才是更佳點子(重要的東西才要讓攝影機看到)
    • For special cases, use scripted "hints" to point yaw or pitch at a target.特別的例子(小場景),撰寫"Hints"(程式用語)去使用yaw or pitch指出目標物。


    • 地雷#30 : Letting players make themselves lost and confused.讓玩家自己迷路和混亂
    • Detect whether the player has started backtracking a significant distance or veering away from targets.偵測不論玩家是否已經開始回到明顯的距離或遠離目標。(普遍做法:在雷達上放方向錯誤訊息,但作者覺得這太明顯)
    • Gently rotate the camera to guide the player back.巧妙地旋轉攝影機指引玩家回到目標路上(作者推薦)
    • Explicitly telling the player where to go robs them of the sense of discovery.清楚明白告訴玩家

    • 地雷#31 : Rotating to look at nearby targets. 旋轉攝影機去看靠近的目標
    • Nearby targets change directions frequently.經常改變靠近的目標的方向
    • Trying to keep up results in flailing around.試著揮動攝影機,保持拍攝目標在鏡頭內。
    • Move back or sideways to include targets in the view.攝影機往後移動或側邊拖拉,保持拍攝目標在鏡頭內。

    • 地雷#32 : Translating to look at distant targets. 轉換觀看遠處的目標
    • Distant targets, on the other hand, will stay roughly the same direction from the avatar.遠處的目標,另一方面,就是與玩家站在同樣差不多的方向
    • The further away they are, the further the camera would have to move to account for them.藉由較遠的目標,遠處攝影機可以依據他們做移動。
    • The only way to look at the sun is to rotate the camera.只有一個方式看太陽,轉動攝影機。

    • 地雷#33: Letting the avatar's own body occlude targets ahead. 讓玩家的身體擋住目標前進。
    • If the avatar and the target are both aligned with the horizontal center of the screen, they need to be vertically offset to be able to see both.如果玩家和目標同在一個水平線上,他們需要垂直偏移,使兩者都可以看見。
    • A slight bird's eye view usually works fine.些微的鳥瞰通常會有不錯的效果。
    • Alternatively, side sideways for a horizontal offset.另一個方式,水平位移。

    • 地雷#34 : Giving the player control over the camera and then taking it away.給予玩家完整控制攝影機,卻又把控制權拿回來。
    • Hints and rails can provide "default" camera angles, but let the player to override them.Hints 和 rails(程式用語)可以提供"預設"攝影機角度,但讓玩家可以覆蓋它們。
    • If you have to take away the player's control, make sure that the camera is already showing what the player needs to see.如果你不讓玩家操作,要確定攝影機已經顯示玩家需要看到的東西。

    • 地雷#35 : Immediately applying a hint after the player finished turning the camera to look at something. 玩家完成攝影機轉向看某件事,立刻使用Hint
    • If the player intentionally turned to look at something, they probably want to examine it before moving on.玩家有意轉向看某物,他們可能想研究它。
    • If there's nothing important, let the camera rest for a moment or until the avatar moves.如果沒有必要,讓攝影機休息片刻(延遲Delay)或等玩家移動再動作。

    • 地雷#36 : Not letting exports explore.不讓探險者探索
    • Curious and experienced players may want to break the rules and explore a bit more.好奇心和有經驗的玩家,也許不想要遵守規則,只想深入探索。
    • Beginners need quidance, but letting exports control the camera lets them choose what matters to them.
    • 初學者需要指導,不過要讓玩家控制攝影機,讓他們選擇他們覺得重要的。

    • 地雷#37 : Not providing inverted controls. 不提供反向操作 
    • many players are used to inverted camera controls on one or both axes, and it's hard for them to relearn.許多玩家習慣反向操作攝影機的某一軸到兩軸。(第一人稱遊戲會有)
    • Not having the option simply limits your audience.並不是給個選項,就單純限制你的玩家。


    2016年8月15日 星期一

    My MRT sketch book vol 17


    HAHA ~~ Blue Monday,but i feel awesome, it's will be a efficient day . All people are in blue and no one could bother me !!