2017年9月20日 星期三

Learn Fight Choreography (How to film fight scenes PART 3)__學習戰鬥編排(如何拍攝戰鬥場面 part 3 )

Learn Fight Choreography (How to film fight scenes PART 3)

學習戰鬥編排(如何拍攝戰鬥場面)

Welcome back to the “How to film a Fight Scene” series!

歡迎回到如何拍攝"戰鬥場景"系列 !
I am writing this series from my personal experiences in the action film industry, as I attempt to breakdown the science of how to make your own fight scene and learn fight choreography! If you missed it, make sure to read the first two parts to the series..

我正撰寫的這一系列文章,來自我個人在動作電影的經驗,我試著去分析如何自製戰鬥場面和學習戰鬥編排的科學。

Part 1 >> How to study Fight Scenes
Part 2 >> Learning basic Fight Moves
Tony Jaa fights Marrese Crump in this fight scene from the movie The Protector 2
Tony Jaa vs Marrese Crump in a fight scene from The Protector 2
Today we are going to be learning the “rules” and “tricks” to selling hits on camera, and finally filming a practice fight scene!

今天我們要學的是"規則"和"竅門",去呈現鏡頭上的痛擊(selling hits),並最後的拍攝練習戰鬥場景
While there are no real “rules” to any art, you will still want to practice the guidelines before you venture into breaking them.. here are a couple of the most common rules to keep in mind.

對於藝術沒有絕對的規則,你會想練習這些準則,在你冒險打破它們前,有一些最常見的規則要記住。
The 180 degree rule. This is the technique that is used to film dialogue scenes in films. Once you establish the geography of a scene and show the position of the characters, you want to make sure your camera doesn’t cross an invisible line which is formed by the interaction of two players.. so if Fighter 1 is on camera left (left side of the screen) and Fighter 2 is camera right, you want to make sure that whichever angles you choose will stay on one side of the “180 line”. (See the fancy diagram below)

180度線 這是一個技術,在電影中使用的電影語言,一旦你建立了一場戲的編排和顯示角色的位置,你想要確保攝影機不會跨越兩個角色互動之間的線,所以如果武師1在攝影機左邊(螢幕左邊)和武師在右邊,你想確保你選的角度是保持在180度線的位置上。(看下圖)
The 180 degree rule is an important thing to remember when filming fight choreography.
The way you can break this rule without jarring your audience is to either use a “cutaway” shot (show something completely different, then come back), or to have the “switch” happen all in one shot on the screen (ex, one of the fighters crosses camera to the other side of the screen, establishing his new position.)

有個可以破壞這個規則且不會混淆觀眾的方法,就是使用cutaway鏡頭(插入鏡頭:呈現完全不一樣的事物,再回到主線),或是"轉換"全部發生在同一顆鏡頭裡 (例:一名打者跨越鏡頭到螢幕另一邊,建立他新的位置)
Stacking your hits. This is the secret to selling your punches and kicks. Unless you are using specialized lenses, cameras can’t tell distances very well. This is the key to what lets us stack our hits. Let’s say you want to sell a punch to the face.. what you need to do is make sure the fighter’s fist crosses in front (or behind) the head at one point during the move, and the person getting hit reacts with the correct timing and in the correct direction. You can be up to a foot away and BAM, you have a solid hit.

堆疊你的打擊 這是展現你的拳擊和踢擊,除非你使用特別的鏡頭,攝影機沒辦法抓到距離。這是讓我們堆疊打擊的關鍵。假設你想展現在臉上貓一拳...那你就要確保武師的拳頭會移動到頭的正面或後面,而受擊者在正確時機回應,並在對的方向。
A punch which follows the stacking rule with a Jab to the face from the Walking Dead.
It will take you some practice getting used to all of the different possible angles you can sell a hit from, and the distance and timing required between both performers.. but if you study a lot of fight scenes, you will start thinking of the possibilities intuitively!

但如果你研究了很多戰鬥場面,你會開始直覺地思考可能性。

Playing with eye movement. Remember that we are putting on a show for the viewer. So it is important to keep in mind where their eyes are looking during your fight. If one character kicks the other on the right side of the screen and you decide to continue filming from another angle, try to keep the last action in around the same screen space to make it easier for your viewer’s mind to overlap.. this is something that you could play around with during editing, (adding in camera movement to match your movement in post) but that would benefit you immensely to keep in mind during filming. (Look at pic below for reference.)

玩弄視覺位移 記得我們給觀眾呈現一場表演,有件事一定要記住,他們在看你的戰鬥時,眼睛在看哪裡。如果角色在螢幕上踢向右邊,而你決定從另一個角度繼續拍,試著把上個動作的位置放在銀幕同一邊,可以讓觀眾容易適應。
Start filming with the last action when moving to a different take. If you’re filming a fight scene creatively, you will have the cutting points already settled in your head. When you’re actually on the set, make sure to overlap the last action at the beginning of each take. For example, you decided to switch angles right after someone got kicked in the face.. start the next take with the whole kick in the face again, that way you will have a nice, fluid cutting point.

從上一個動作開始拍攝  假設你決定踢完臉後角度換成右邊,那你下一個take就是從臉已經被踢的動作開始拍新的角度,這樣你就會有一個很棒的又流暢的剪接點。
Tony Jaa kicks Marrese Crump in The Protector 2, this is a good example of starting on the last action in order to get a good cutting point when filming a fight scene.
These 3 takes, filmed starting with the last action, flow well together.
And that’s all you need to know for basics! As soon as you get out there and start filming, you will start coming up with your own rules and tricks that are unique to your style. Don’t be afraid to play around! Remember, we’re just putting on a show :)


For the complete beginner, I will now walk you through the basic filming structure. This is a super safe way to film a fight with almost no creativity required on the camera-man’s part. I would only recommend this way of filming to beginners..it’s safe and you will get everything you need, but this will create A LOT of editing work.

對於完全新手,我要介紹你一個基本拍攝結構,這是一個超級安全的方法去拍攝戰鬥場面,不需要攝影師幫忙,我只推薦拍攝新手,它很安全,你可以得到你想要的,但這會有很多的剪輯工作。
– Film one or two MASTER SHOTS from a wide angle so you can see both fighters the entire time. Have them run through the fight a couple of times and try to catch each beat, but don’t stress over selling all of the hits from here.
– Film the fight over each fighter’s shoulder. This is where you want to try and make sure each hit sells.
– Film some CLOSE-UPS and INSERTS on hits that you weren’t able to catch in your other takes, and which you feel will help tell the story of your fight.

--用廣角鏡頭拍攝一到兩個主鏡頭,你可以看到整個對打,讓他們排演幾次,試著抓到彼此的節奏,但不需要把過度用力呈現出拳。

--使用過肩鏡頭。這是可以呈現出拳的地方。

--拍攝一些出拳的特寫和插入鏡頭,可以幫助你的戰鬥故事
Following this route, when you get to editing your fight scene you will have a choice of ~3 different ways to sell each hit. If you do have some creative ideas on how to film your fight, I would recommend you to film the vision in your head and only get the shots you need. That way you can see how it all goes together in the edit, and you won’t spend extra time filming stuff for safety (although I recommend filming a master shot in any case).

依照這些規則,當你剪接你的戰鬥場景,你會有許多個不一樣的選擇,如果你真的有一些不一樣的創意,去處理你的戰鬥,我會建議你在你的腦袋先拍過,然後只取你要的鏡頭。這樣你就可以再剪接裡看到他是怎麼運作,你不會付出額外的時間拍攝 (雖然我建議在任何專案都要拍攝主鏡頭)
“This is how I used to film fights when I first started. It helped me dial in my performances and movement, but my personal style soon outgrew the ‘safe’ way in favor of telling each story in a different way..”

With today’s availability of cameras, you shouldn’t have anything stopping you! Grab a friend, get out there, and film your first practice fight scene! Aim for 12-20 beats, filming 3-7 beats per take. Any camera will do (even your cell phone camera today is better than the camcorders I started with), and you can find editing software online! (I edit on Premiere Pro CC, which has a 30 day free trial available on their site.)

隨著現今攝影機的便利性,你不應該被任何事給阻擋! 拖一個朋友,走出去,拍攝你的第一個練習的戰鬥場面吧!! 目標12-20次打擊, 每一個鏡次3-7打擊,任何攝影機都可以做到(今天你的手機相機也比我剛入行的攝影機好) 你也可以在網路上找到剪輯軟體 ! (我用Premiere Pro CC,30天免費試用)

Marrese Crump's epic side kick in this fight scene from The Protector 2.
My friend Marrese Crump’s epic side kick to Tony Jaa in The Protector 2.
If you have any questions or would like some feedback on your fight scene, leave me a comment below, or feel free to send me a message through my facebook page: fb.com/RusticB
In the next article, we will be learning how to edit your fight scenes, and how to perfect your filming technique by learning from yourself in post-production!

2017年9月8日 星期五

My MRT sketch book vol 21

 

   I have not to put some sketch for a while.... Recently i got stuck in chatting in smart phone, it's not good to me. talk sth about work about Gossip. So stupid~~ I should go back to draw sth.






















2017年8月24日 星期四

Learn Screen Fighting (How to film fight scenes PART 2) 學習銀幕戰鬥 (如何拍攝戰鬥場景 part 2 )

Learn Screen Fighting (How to film fight scenes PART 2)

Time to learn some Screen Fighting moves for your fight scenes!

是時候為你的戰鬥場面學習一些銀幕戰鬥動作 !
Welcome to Part 2 of my breakdown of how to make your own fight scenes and learn fight choreography!

歡迎來到我對如何製作自己的戰鬥場面和學習戰鬥編排的剖析 第二部分
I am writing this series from my personal experiences in the action film industry, as I attempt to breakdown the science of how to make your own fight scene and learn fight choreography!
Part 1 >> How to study Fight Scenes
Part 3 >> Learning basic Fight Moves

我正撰寫的這一系列文章,來自我個人在動作電影的經驗,我試著去分析如何自製戰鬥場面和學習戰鬥編排的科學。
If you missed it, make sure to read the first post in the series, How to study and pick apart Fight Scenes.

如果你錯過,確定你有讀過第一篇文章,如何研讀和選擇戰鬥場面。
Today we will begin learning some actual screen fighting moves that you can take into your own fight choreography practices, and fight scenes!

今天我們將開始學習一些實際電影戰鬥的動作,你可以從中攫取放入自己的戰鬥編排練習和戰鬥場面中。
Disclaimer: Rustic B is a trained professional working in the Hollywood stunt industry. Anything you learn on this blog, that you attempt, is done so at your own risk. Have fun, and stay safe guys!
Bruce Lee fights Kareem Abdul Jabbar in a timeless example of good screen fighting.
Bruce Lee vs Kareem Abdul Jabbar in Game of Death (click to watch the fight)
Good fight choreography that impresses time and again, consists of three components; Movement, Distance, and Timing.

好的戰鬥編排一次又一次的印象深刻,有三個部分組成 : 動作 距離  時機
Movement includes all of the actual moves you see people performing. In hand-to-hand combat these can be further broken down, into Handwork and Footwork. Below, I’ve made a list of essential, basic movements you will need to learn in order to be able to perform and create your own fight choreography. You will want to learn the correct fighting way to perform these moves, after which we will slightly modify them for fight choreography. Weapons is another key for creating impressive fight scenes, but I will cover these in a future article.

動作 包含確切的行為,你看到演員的表演,在雙手肉搏戰,可以更進一步分出handwork和footwork,以下,我列出根本,基礎運動,你需要學,為的是讓你能表演和創造你自己的戰鬥編排。你會想學習正確的戰鬥方法去表現這些動作,接著我們將會為戰鬥編排稍微修改動作。武器是另一個創造深刻戰鬥場面的關鍵。
You don’t need to use any special equipment to learn the moves below. Unless you have access to some pads to practice on, just focus on getting comfortable moving in your own skin. (Look up tutorials for these moves on YouTube for now, I will film some examples in future.)

你不需要使用任何特殊裝備去學下面的動作,除非你可以在墊子上練習,只要對你的皮膚舒服就行(現在就到Youtube看教程,未來我將錄了一些範例)
Handwork (punches, blocks)
– Jab 刺拳  (出拳與前腳同邊)
– Cross 刺拳 (出拳與前腳不同邊)
– Hook 勾拳
– Uppercut 上勾拳
– Blocks for Punches 以拳封拳
– Blocks for Kicks 以拳封腿
Footwork (kicks)
– Roundhouse 回旋踢
– Front 前踢
– Side 側踢
– Hook 勾踢
– Spinning Hook 後旋踢
– Fighting Stances 戰鬥站姿
– Blocks for Kicks 以腿封腿
Practice in front of a mirror if you can. This advice was given to me by some of the best stunt people in the industry. Perfect the way your moves look and feel to you, as you flow from one to the next. There are some very misleading fight scenes up on youtube today, where the performance has good energy and the camera, edit, and sound are superb..yet the performers look like they’re punching air, wildly swinging, or holding back..a mirror would help these people!

如果可以的話,在鏡子前練習。這個建議也是業界最棒的特技演員給我的。當你一招一招的打出,鏡子可以完美的展現你的動作姿勢和感覺。現今,有一些誤導的戰鬥影片上傳到youtube,表現出有很棒的力量和攝影,剪輯和音效都一流水準,不過這些表演者看起來像打空氣,搖擺不定,或背對  一面鏡子會幫助這些人。
Imagine some targets in the air in front of you, and practice hitting those marks over and over. This skill will be important on the set, where you and your partner’s safety will depend on how much control you have over your body. Even the most messy looking fights you see on the big screen are performed by people who know what they’re doing and are working together to make it “look” messy, while remaining in complete control.

在你面前,想像一些目標,並且一次又一次的練習踢這些標記,這些技術將會在組合技裡很重要,你和你夥伴的安全也是依靠你能如何控制你的身體,即使你在大螢幕上看到最混亂的戰鬥,這些演員都知道他們要做什麼,並且在一起演出讓戲"看起來"變的混亂,並同時保持在完全控制之下。


Bruce Lee fought Jackie Chan in Enter the Dragon.
Bruce Lee fought Jackie Chan in Enter the Dragon
String together several moves into combos and practice them with a focus on fluidity while also being light on your feet.

串聯多個動作到連續技並練習他們,注意流動性,並放輕你的腳。


“Fight Choreography is a dance, a choreographed performance that comes together when everyone works together and plays off each other’s distance and timing.”
戰鬥編排是一種舞蹈,一場編排的表演伴隨每個人一起工作並回應每個人的距離和時機。


Proper Distance and Timing is the next important key to good screen fighting. The best fighters in the film industry are able to make split-second adjustments in their movements, to adapt to their partner’s style. This comes from working with actors, many of whom aren’t trained in fight choreography, where it becomes the stunt performer’s job to keep their partner safe.

對於好的營幕前戰鬥適當的距離時機是下一個重點,在電影工業,最棒的武師,是能夠瞬間調整他們的動作,去適應調整他們夥伴的風格。這是由於合作的演員,他們多半沒有戰鬥編排的訓練,這時特技演員的工作就是要去保護夥伴的安全。
Your knowledge of distance and timing will come with experience, as you work with different types of people and learn which hits sell on camera and which don’t. A good rule of thumb for proper distance and timing in a fight, is if it starts feeling crowded or like you’re going too fast, back up and slow down! Many beginners start crowding the person they’re working with, and the choreography just starts looking bad.

你的距離與時機的知識是辦隨著經驗而來,你和不一樣類型的人工作,並學習在鏡頭前展現拳腳和不展現哪些。對與適當距離和戰鬥時機,最好的法則就是,如果一開始感覺太壅擠或你覺得自己出手太快,後退一步或放慢速度! 許多初學者一開始就推擠同伴,這時編排上就看起來很糟。
Don’t rush your movements. Most of the fight scenes I have filmed for Movies and TV were actually performed at 80-90 percent speed. In reality, if you get your movements to look fluid, you can film a fight scene at 70 percent speed and still make it look really good.

不要催促你的動作。我拍攝過的電影電視,大部分的戰鬥場面,事實上表現出80-90%的速度。現實中,如果你要你的動作看起來是順暢的,你可以用70%的速度去拍攝,依然可以看起來不錯。
Keep your hips at a 45 degree angle to your partner, instead of facing directly at them. Keeping your hips at slightly off center will make your punches/swings look bigger and will allow you to look like you’re moving (while all you’re doing is switching your stances in place to adjust for distance).

保持你的臀部在45度面向你的對手,而不是直接正對他們。保持你的臀部些微的偏離中心,可以讓你的攻擊/擺動看起來幅度更大,而且讓你看起來像在移動(你所要做的是轉換你的站姿,調整距離)
The best fighters in the industry can make anyone look good. When your fight practice isn’t going too well, and your partner can’t make the necessary adjustments, remember that you can always change something about your own movements to make the necessary hits sell.

這行業中,最棒的武師可以讓"任何人"看起來很棒 ! 你做的戰鬥演練無法順利演出,你的對手不能做出適當的調整,記住,你總是可以改變你自己的動作去讓它變得必要的攻擊。
Bruce Lee and Chuck Norris fight in this iconic example of screen fighting. Learn fight choreography and how to film fight scenes by reading this article.
Bruce Lee vs Chuck Norris in Way of the Dragon
Train, Train and Train! It’s time for your screen fighting HOMEWORK!

訓練,訓練 訓練 ! 是時候為你銀幕上的戰鬥做點功課了。
Practice the moves I outlined above in front of a mirror! Once you’re comfortable, start practicing some Shadow Boxing

在鏡子前面,練習我列出來的動作。一旦你熟練了,開始練習空擊練習。
Learn one “extra curricular” move that impresses you. Start thinking on your feet and take one of the moves you’d like to try (from last week’s notes) and research how you can learn it. (I learned almost everything I know from YouTube, it is truly a “modern oracle”.)


學習一招"課外"的動作,讓你印象深刻的那種,開始思考你的腳,從上禮拜清單挑一個你想試的動作,並且研究你如何學習這個動作(我總是在Youtube上學到任何東西,它真的是現代諭示)
Write in your training journal, keep track of which moves you have learned and which you still need to perfect. Start keeping notes of your workouts, this will be an amazing motivational tool!

寫下你的訓練歷程,並且保持你學過的動作,因為你還是需要它完美,開始鍛鍊你的訓練,會是很棒的動機工具。
EXTRA CREDIT:
Find some friends who are interested in learning screen fighting! It can seem impossible (it did so for me), but I assure you that if you look hard enough you will find someone who is down to throw down! Once you have a training buddy, start going through some fight choreography together. Start with some simple combinations of jabs, crosses, hooks, while your partner bobs and weaves around your punches. Also, start thinking of where a hypothetical camera could be filming you from and where the best angle in your mind is to sell your hits.

額外加分:
找一些對銀幕戰鬥有興趣的朋友! 看起來似乎不可能(對我也是)但我確定你找得夠勤快,你會找到可以丟摔的夥伴。一旦你有一起訓練的夥伴,開始一同編排戰鬥,從一些簡單的左刺拳,右刺拳,勾拳。你的夥伴對你的攻擊作閃避和搖擺 。也開始思考假想攝影機的位置,可以拍得到你,然後在你心中那邊是最好的角度,可以把你的攻擊張力表現出來。

————————
Now get out there, Warm Up, TRAIN HARD, stay safe, and most importantly, HAVE FUN!

現在就起身,暖身,苦練,注意安全,最重要的,玩得開心!
< < < Check out last week's article on How to Study Fight Scenes

2017年7月12日 星期三

Learn Fight Choreography (How to film fight scenes PART 1) _ 學習武打編排 (如何拍攝武打場面 part 1)

source from : Learn Fight Choreography (How to film fight scenes PART 1)

Learn Fight Choreography (How to film fight scenes PART 1)

Welcome to Part 1 of my article series on how to create your own realistic fight scenes!

歡迎來到我的系列文章,第一部分,如何創造你自己的真實戰鬥場面。
I am writing this series from my personal experiences in the action film industry, as I attempt to breakdown the science of how to make your own fight scene and learn fight choreography! This is Part 1, links to the other articles in the series are below..
Part 2 >> Learning basic Fight Moves
Part 3 >> Selling hits and filming your first Fight Scene

我寫這一系列,是從我在動作電影工業中自己的經驗截取。我試著分析如何自己設計動作場面並且學習戰鬥編輯! 這是第一部分,其它文章的連結如下
Learning Fight Choreography and how to film your own fight scenes can seem like a daunting task.. but as with anything in life, if you go into it with an open mind and a willingness to “fail your way to success”, anyone can teach themselves the techniques to make a piece of badass action filmmaking!

學習戰鬥編劇和如何拍攝屬於你的戰鬥場面,看起來是個很艱距的任務,但生活中遇到任何事,如果你是以一顆開放的心去面對,並且願意從失敗中站起來,每個人都可以自學技術,製作酷炫的動作電影。
Learn how to make, film fight scenes and learn fight choreography like in this image from The Raid.
The Raid (Clicking the images will take you to some cool fight scenes.)
全面突襲
When I started learning this stuff, I didn’t have anyone to teach me, so I hope this multi-part article will get you going in the right direction.. In this series of articles I will walk you through an overall approach, with future posts explaining more in-depth details.

我開始學習這個工作,我沒有人教我,所以我希望這一系列的文章可以指引你對的方向。這一系列的文章,我將帶領你跨越整個方法。未來公告會解釋更多細節。
So, let’s say our hypothetical question of this series is “how do I make a fight scene?”. Let’s break this down into several steps..

我們來談這個系列所設定的問題,"我要怎麼製作一場戰鬥場面? 我們來把它分成幾個階段吧!
Watch and study a lot of fight scenes!! Everyone eventually develops their own flavor of what good action film making and fight choreography is. There are hundreds of different ways and styles to film the same story, so you should immerse yourself in as many different types of action films you can think of. My personal favorite sources of good fight choreography and action scenes as of now are The Raid, Tony Jaa’s Ong Bak, and of course the Jackie Chan movies that got me into stunts.

觀看和研讀大量的戰鬥場面!! 每個人最後會發展出屬於他們的品味,分辨什麼是好的動作電影製作和戰鬥編排。有無數不同種類的方式和風格去拍攝同一個故事,所以你必須把你自己沉浸到你能想到的各種動作電影裡頭。我個人最喜歡的優秀戰鬥編排和戰鬥場面,現在是全面突襲,拳霸,當然還有成龍的電影。
Another good set of resources to get your creative fight choreography and action scene juices flowing, are video games! For example after playing Batman: Arkham City for several hours, I started thinking in Batman’s fighting style. This principle translates to many other fighting games.. it is also the reason you see so many “live action” fight scenes being made as homages to the fans’ favorite characters.

另外好的參考資料,讓你創意戰鬥編排和動作場面源源不絕,就是電玩! 例如,玩完蝙蝠俠:阿卡漢城市幾個小時後,我開始思考蝙蝠俠的戰鬥風格。這原則轉換到其他格鬥遊戲。同樣理由,你可以看到許多實況格鬥場面,是做為對粉絲敬意最喜歡的角色。
Donnie Yen plays the chinese hero, IP Man. He is one of the better fight choreographers and performers, and his fight scenes result in some inventive and creative fight choreography.
Donnie Yen in IP MAN
Take notes! Go on, make a list of your favorite action movies.. now look them up on YouTube and find their respective fight scenes. Really study the performers and their fight choreography (use the youtube slo-mo feature or download the video and play it back on your computer), and observe your response to the choreography.

作筆記! 來吧,寫下你最喜歡的動作電影。 現在從Youtube看,並找出他們各自的戰鬥場面。認真研讀表演者和他們的戰鬥編排(使用youtube的慢動作功能或下載影片到你的電腦上看),觀察你對編排的反應。
– Which moves catch your eye the most? 哪一種動作最能吸引你 ?
– What camera angles are used to sell the hits? 哪種攝影機角度最有賣點 ?
– Can you tell which moves are very technical? 你能說哪些動作是非常技術性 ?
– Given the chance, would you do something differently? 如果有機會,你能做出不一樣的動作嗎 ?
Pay attention to the camera work, see how the camera man interacts with the performances you are watching.. Write down your thoughts and observations.

注意攝影機運動,看攝影師如何與你正在觀看的表演者互動,寫下的想法和觀察。
“Just as a director who knows how to act will be able to create a believable story on the big screen, and the best actors are ones who can direct themselves.. so must you want to learn everything there is to learn about your subject matter.”
"就像導演知道在大銀幕上,如何演出就會創造一個令人信服的故事,而且最好的演員是那些可以引導自己的人.....所以你必須想學習你的主題的一切。"
Now for this week’s ‘fight choreography homework’.. have a surf around YouTube and pick 3 of your favorite fight scenes. Then write an answer to each of the questions I proposed above.. or make up your own notes! The point here is to get you observing the choreography and breaking it down in your mind.

這禮拜的"戰鬥編排功課" ..瀏覽Youtube並且選出你最喜歡的戰鬥場面。並寫下我上面所提出問題的答案...或自己作筆記 ! 這邊的重點是藉由你的觀察編排並且自己分析它。
Jackie Chan and Jet Li, both masters of fight choreography, finally verse each other in a fight scene from The Forbidden Kingdom.Jet Li and Jackie Chan fight in The Forbidden Kingdom
Until next time, stay safe and keep your chin up! Nothing in life is as hard as we make it seem. You are the only person who can influence and manifest your happiness :)

等到下一次,注意安全並打起精神 ! 生活中沒有我們想像中這麼艱難,你是唯一可以影響和表現你的幸福的人。

2017年6月22日 星期四

GDC 2015 Animation of The Order : 1886 _ GDC 2015 教團1886 動畫製作 下



 我們講了一堆如何讓劇情感覺真實,和一些我們讓遊戲動作變更真實的事情。現在我們要講如何把這兩種混和再一起,讓整個遊戲有電影體驗。

 如何讓它無縫接軌
1.首先我們試著定義一些明顯視覺化的線索,你可以在劇情中操作。

2.再來是,劇情轉到遊戲

3.討論遊戲轉換到劇情

4.最後,我們如何在這兩種模式下,保持這種風格。

所以什麼是視覺化線索?

視訊壓縮
預先渲染的東西 即使是在遊戲引擎跑,也會變得明顯,由於壓縮失真(compression artifacts),所以我們最大的賣點,每件事都必須是即時運算。

模型替換
當遊戲在劇情和遊戲中,使用不一樣的角色模型,就會有個明顯改變,從面數解析度到不一樣的材質應用在角色上,我們早先決定使用同樣的物件在劇情中和遊戲中,去避免任何差異,這提供簡化我們工作流程的好處,這意味我們不用整理兩個不一樣的物件,

    另一個項目是攝影機,明顯的攝影機混接,搖鏡到指定位置或不好的攝影機轉變也會變得明顯,會出現切換遊戲模式的感覺。

像是攝影機明顯的混接,角色也會有這種狀況

最後,在戲劇與遊戲中,主要的不一樣是在鏡頭,這包括透鏡(lens)選擇,景別,攝影機運動。

那我們如何接近轉換從戲劇轉成遊戲。
第一步,我們先匹配姿勢,我們一開始,我們還沒有整個遊戲系統,我們從匹配姿勢開始,這是我們能最好的部分,但只是匹配姿勢還不夠。在劇情中,我們會關掉碰撞,讓角色在移動時,避開任何物理問題和環境互動,這樣運行很棒,直到你要進行遊戲,再把碰撞打開。但問題如果角色動畫在地面上很輕微動作,一旦劇情結束,它們會立刻跟隨,並且迅速著地造成很明顯的POP(動作劇烈變動),相反的,如果他們是在地面下動畫,他們緊貼地面,那有戲就會正確動作。我們常調角色動畫到我們認為角色該結束動作地方,然後再進入遊戲,看看遊戲碰撞,在劇情結束後,到底對角色做了甚麼,我們接著記錄這些有效位置,回MAYA再次調整動畫,使用我們的additve rig到新的位置。最後,我們有程式解決方案,容易解決這種狀況,但更精確一點,我們可以讓它最初在更好的戲劇結束。

不像角色,攝影機也是盡量混接回一個有效位置,如果攝影機太靠近或太遠,一旦戲劇結束。所以我們動畫角色到對的位置,並且沒有POP,我們就會編排和擷取新的有效攝影機位置,並從遊戲裡使用那些數值,我們回頭去確定戲劇結束點攝影機位置,我們必須把這些數值放在遊戲裡,是因為像是玩家,攝影機有自己的碰撞和判斷。

所以這是我們第一個範例,我們的無縫轉換,從戲劇到遊戲,我們有很多的測試員,放下控制器,並觀看劇情,然後結束後還坐了一會兒,並沒有發現已經轉成遊戲模式,所以我們認為這真的成功了!你可以看上層,玩家沒有推搖桿,而下面的是搖桿往前進。
接近專案尾聲,我們開始不止匹配姿勢,也使用Settle Blends(終止混接),這意味著我們可跨越混接到遊戲模式。

使用Settle Blends意味我們也可以很快的Breakout(中斷),所以如果玩家按下往前,在戲劇結束前,角色就會開始往前,預防一些動力,以終止代替。但因為這個功能太晚出現,不幸地,我們有足夠的時間去把我們所有的戲劇更動,它非常成功的做出結束。

你可以看上面的攝影機,Galahad持續settle,沒有任何玩家輸入指令,而下面是玩家在戲劇前就breakout,操作Galahad。

最後,NPC如何從戲劇轉換到遊戲移動 ? 我們有很多方法可以做到。


像玩家,我們一開始,就從匹配NPC pose結束到他們的待機狀態。

一旦戲劇結束,當它們由AI控制後,這樣不管甚麼角色問題,都會結束。我們有兩個解決方案。

一是最後一顆鏡頭,AI已經啟動切斷他們的動畫,這解決喚醒他們,但這意味我們不能指導表演。

其二,我們使用phase  blending,允許我們得到一些角色的表演,當他們經過一些位置時,得到一個無縫轉變的結果,但它提供一種完美移動到空間中。 

這邊有一些範例

最後,我們在遊戲裡,依照情況混著使用這三種方法。

有三個方式我們可以觸發戲劇

第一,互動(按下按鈕),可以知道劇情互動時機,玩家可以按下按鈕,啟動戲劇開關。
第二,觸發量體空間,玩家在遊戲中進入一個空間。
第三,時間點觸發,滿足條件,就會發生戲劇。
我們來看看互動(interact),互動同步會發生,當螢幕提示被玩家啟動。
在啟動當下,玩家角色會混接,並且同步到一個標的(object)上。
混接(blending)是程序化角色的動作,從pose轉到另一個pose
我們同步轉換的過程,並且旋轉整個角色到世界相對的專屬位置。
Interact 同步有兩個主要好處
第一,當戲劇啟動,玩家還是有控制權。
第二,因為戲劇在專屬位置被啟動,我們會很清楚知道玩家會在哪裡,因為玩家要和物件interacting,我們也可以利用這個行為去激發第一顆鏡頭。
一般而言,我們調角色動畫,盡可能接近物體,如果玩家離開始位置太遠,才剛使用同步的話,我們就會用AI Pathing(AI尋路)讓角色接近,這讓設計師調整啟動範圍,不用再讓動畫師回頭調整動畫,或再次同步混接。
在他還沒有開門之前
你可以看到角色自動走到位置
我們也希望角色手持的武器,一起進入戲劇,但是試著把不一樣的變數帶入,十分困難,所以我們mocap演員都不拿武器。我們使用遊戲的持槍動畫,在開始戲劇前,將他們的武器收起來。
因為玩家要與物件互動,
對角色而言,要讓它感覺自然,首先要收起武器
讓雙手自由。
我們永遠不知道攝影機確實的位置,所以我們必須混接,我們發現預先混接或是混接第一顆鏡頭方向效果比較好,
所以我們會將攝影機動畫調得更接近遊戲有效範圍
讓它混接得更自然。
2.觸發量體空間,就是走進一個空間,它不像interact,會有一個確切點。觸發量體空間更像是穿過一個門檻,所以不只有較多變數的位置,玩家也經常移動中觸發,這意味有一個變數和玩家如何迅速進行。
為了減少一些未知情況,我們藉由觸發空間量體,像是在門口或是進入狹窄空間,試著跟隨玩家。設置這些空間量體,明顯的門檻會有些好處,當他們準備前進,可以讓玩家聽從指令。
最容易的作法之一,就是這些戲劇一開始,是用一個反拍(reverse shot)
當玩家進入空間量體時
立刻切換鏡頭
讓玩家移動到空間中,看起來有效。
但它也非常突然(其實還好)


當我們需要更好的轉換,我們會同步和混接角色進入位置。一旦動作行動,我們會切鏡
問題是這個角色在移動,我們需要匹配這個角色速度。

為使它運作良好,我們會把角色完整緊貼搖桿,讓它控制速度。

我們做的另一件事,使用AI去啟動一個動作(action),去輔助驅動第一顆鏡頭。
你可以看到螢幕上左邊的女人,開始在勾引Galahad,他一踏入門檻
就啟動另一顆鏡頭。
我可以給有關時間點觸發的最好建議,就是盡量可能不要用,即便他們可以使用,因為你不知道角色到底是面對何處,這意味著不知道會在何處跑出硬切(hard-cut:直接切鏡),這會讓玩家極度迷失方向。
所以我們這邊使用特效
(閃爍黑幕)但你也可以看到
這破壞了場景的連續性。
最好的選項是先切到某個景物,
你可以欺騙玩家在什麼地方
和玩家在幹什麼。
這邊有一些範例是我們如何試做,讓遊戲和戲劇感覺相似,透過剪輯鏡頭選擇,有些我們有做,我們使用一樣的焦距給戲劇和遊戲,例子就是在戲劇中使用遮蔽和中景。更具體的例子,是使用相似的鏡位。
攝影機在遊戲中跟隨Galahad
另外,如何混戰的類似作法,也會在戲劇和遊戲中表現。
所以我們來看看在戲劇中的跟隨鏡頭,當追隨角色,我們試著拍右過肩,並增加同樣類似的距離。
這邊我們可以看到,即便我們正在轉換成戲劇,
我們試著模仿遊戲的攝影機,我們跟隨Galahand進門。

另一個例子,我們如何使用同一種攝影機
去移動角色到遮蔽處,輔助無縫轉換成遊戲模式。
我們即使在戲劇中間段使用鏡頭,不管何時,我們都會跟隨玩家跑步。
在這場戲,我們使用好多次,試著保持類似距離,和感覺是遊戲模式。


最後,我們以蒙太奇或混戰擊倒作為結束。
這些都是我們遊戲團隊所做的,和實際表現我們如何整合大量的戲劇原理到我們遊戲裡。


這邊就告一段落。
我們要感謝我們的不可思議的美術 程式和企畫,sony visual arts service group和sony santa monica, Naugty Dog 和 autodesk